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“An understanding of the natural world and what’s in it is a source of not only a great curiosity but great fulfilment.” – David Attenborough

The spotted hyena is arguably the most successful large carnivore in Africa because it is both a proficient hunter and scavenger, displaying resourcefulness and stamina in its foraging pursuits. It is the only mammal that can digest bone, which it crushes in its powerful jaws and thereby extracts calcium and protein unavailable to other animals.

Hyenas have exceptional senses with sight (especially night vision), smell and hearing all being excellent. A hyenas olfactory capabilities are so remarkable that they can follow scent trails that are already three days old.

Hyenas have massive forequarters modified for carrying heavy carcasses. The large head and neck are well equipped, with muscles to actuate the kind of crushing and tearing jaw actions that hyenas use. The enlarged forequarters give the hyena a sloped appearance and the front feet are larger than the hind to accommodate the extra forward weight. The body structure is also an adaption to the loping energy-efficient gait used by hyenas when they forage.

Unlike other carnivores, the cubs are born with their eyes open, canines fully intact and aggressive tendencies. A female usually gives birth to twins. If two female cubs are born they start to battle for dominance immediately and one cub usually dies.

Hyenas live in clans dominated by the larger, more aggressive females. Each clan defends a territory of about 130 square kilometers. Females have a rank hierarchy amongst themselves and all females (and their female cubs) are dominant over all males. Female cubs inherit their moms status and they form coalitions in which they operate (i.e. hunt together). These coalitions, especially if lower ranked, will sometimes break away to form new clans where their status is improved. Young males leave the clan at 2 years of age to be inducted into a new clan, which will give them a slightly elevated status as they are genetically vigorous. They will work hard to gain social favour in order to mate with females, but also  sometimes will simply remain alone.

The focus of a hyena clan centres on a communal den (usually an old aardvark hole with a few entrances for easy access) where all the females keep their young. Unlike lions they do not mutually suckle each other’s young but like lions, they come and go as they please. Adults seldom go inside the den, they remain at the entrance where they suckle their young on the richest milk of any terrestrial mammal. The cubs stay in their den being fed on only milk for a protracted time and are weaned at 14-18 months old. The females strategy is to keep their young safe by leaving them at the den and thus out of harms way for as long as possible. By letting the young suckle, rather than taking meat back to the den they further avoid the attention of competitors like lions.

 

Giving birth is no easy task for a hyena mother. The birth canal traverses the pseudo-penis and is twice as long as in other mammals. The umbilical cord disconnects from the placenta while the cub is still inside the birth canal, the opening of which is far smaller than the cubs head. As a result first-time mothers often produce stillborn cubs due to oxygen starvation. Due to the uro-genital opening splitting, subsequent births are a little easier.

Words & pictures by Jamie Sangster

 

 

 

 

 

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2 Comments

  1. Cherrill THICKITT says:

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    Hi Jamie
    Thank you for the very interesting blog on Hyenas. We learned a lot from it. We were lucky to visit the den wnhen we stayed in Sept
    Cherrill Thickitt.

  2. Capn Toni Old Boi Fish says:

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    Greetings Jamie,

    Thank you for sharing your summary overview of these beautiful Animal-Kin, the Spotted Hyenas. In particular, your writing of Spotted Hyena recalled me to the fascinating observations of the quite long-running Michigan State University Hyena Study Group and Leibnitz-Berlin Hyena Project.

    Cubs typically inherit the rank of their Mothers. In the quite rare event of adoption, the adopted Cub will inherit the rank of their adoptive Mother.

    http://msuhyenas.blogspot.com/2014/10/mama-drama.html

    While allo-nursing is another quite rare event, it has been observed to happen with Cubs whose Mother is higher ranking than a lower-ranking Mother of other Cubs.

    When a male Cub is born to, for example, a Clan Matriarch, he inherits the rank of his Mother. Because of his status in the hierarchy, he is able to dominate every other member of the Clan, aside of his own Mother. He will benefit from the aid of his Mother in terms of access to food and he might even go on to become head of the Clan, though of course this is a very rare event.

    https://hyena-project.com/the-clans/shamba-comeback-kids/

    A male who remains with his Natal or birth Clan might even, given time, be able to mate with some of the females younger than himself.

    https://www.sciencenews.org/blog/wild-things/why-some-male-hyenas-leave-and-others-are-content-stay-home

    If he chooses to migrate out, whatever next Clan he seeks to enjoin the female of, he will most often be the lowest ranking individual. The hierarchy of immigrant males is usually in order of arrival, with the first arriving to the Clan having the highest ranking and downward from there.

    However, ranking does not necessarily equate to less breeding opportunities. If an immigrant male is careful, smart and works hard to develop friendly relations, then a female might find him attractive regardless of his rank among his contemporary males.

    And if things don’t work out on the road, as it were, males can and do return to their Natal Clans. There they may find new, younger females who may choose to mate with him.

    While it was long believed that males were not permitted near Cubs, we have learned that sometimes males do indeed, albeit carefully, visit den sites and even interact with Cubs.

    http://msuhyenas.blogspot.com/2014/01/serenas-dudes.html

    Spotted Hyenas are fascinating Animal-Kin. With flexibility as one of the keys of their survival, we can be sure there will be moments of surprises which introduce us to new facets of how the amazing, beautiful Spotted Hyena live and survive.

    Blessings & OhWhooop!

    Cap’n Toni with my Coco and Maya Pups and All the Animal-Kin of the lil Haus…
    Pennsylvania, USA….